Repo, Reverse Repo, Bank Rate, Call Rate, CRR & SLR Definitions

As requested by Payal, we are explaining the different rates in monetary policy used by RBI

Repo (Repurchase) Rate

Repo rate is the rate at which banks borrow funds from the RBI to meet the gap between the demand they are facing for money (loans) and how much they have on hand to lend.

If the RBI wants to make it more expensive for the banks to borrow money, it increases the repo rate; similarly, if it wants to make it cheaper for banks to borrow money, it reduces the repo rate.

Reverse Repo Rate

This is the exact opposite of repo rate.

The rate at which RBI borrows money from the banks (or banks lend money to the RBI) is termed the reverse repo rate. The RBI uses this tool when it feels there is too much money floating in the banking system

If the reverse repo rate is increased, it means the RBI will borrow money from the bank and offer them a lucrative rate of interest. As a result, banks would prefer to keep their money with the RBI (which is absolutely risk free) instead of lending it out (this option comes with a certain amount of risk)

Consequently, banks would have lesser funds to lend to their customers. This helps stem the flow of excess money into the economy

Reverse repo rate signifies the rate at which the central bank absorbs liquidity from the banks, while repo signifies the rate at which liquidity is injected.

Bank Rate

This is the rate at which RBI lends money to other banks (or financial institutions .

The bank rate signals the central bank’s long-term outlook on interest rates. If the bank rate moves up, long-term interest rates also tend to move up, and vice-versa.

Banks make a profit by borrowing at a lower rate and lending the same funds at a higher rate of interest. If the RBI hikes the bank rate (this is currently 6 per cent), the interest that a bank pays for borrowing money (banks borrow money either from each other or from the RBI) increases. It, in turn, hikes its own lending rates to ensure it continues to make a profit.

Call Rate

Call rate is the interest rate paid by the banks for lending and borrowing for daily fund requirement. Si nce banks need funds on a daily basis, they lend to and borrow from other banks according to their daily or short-term requirements on a regular basis.

CRR

Also called the cash reserve ratio, refers to a portion of deposits (as cash) which banks have to keep/maintain with the RBI. This serves two purposes. It ensures that a portion of bank deposits is totally risk-free and secondly it enables that RBI control liquidity in the system, and thereby, inflation by tying their hands in lending money

SLR

Besides the CRR, banks are required to invest a portion of their deposits in government securities as a part of their statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) requirements. What SLR does is again restrict the bank’s leverage in pumping more money into the economy.

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541 thoughts on “Repo, Reverse Repo, Bank Rate, Call Rate, CRR & SLR Definitions

    • u have strong knowledge in your areas of interest and please mention true thinks only in your resume, they are asked question based on your resume. be prepare, be brave, be presence of mind, then u will succeed in interview all the best.

  1. Sir please send me material in hindi medium for economics. I am preparing for examination conducted by Staff Selection Commission and banking. My email-Id is

  2. sir please can you tell me why the difference between reverse repo rate and repo rate is always maintained as 1. presently(7.75-6.75 = 1)

  3. Sir please send me material in hindi medium for economics. I am preparing for examination conducted by Staff Selection Commission. My email-Id is jsk41987@gmail.com.
    I will be grateful to you.
    Thank You Sir.

    • repo rate means the rbi lends from commercial bands for the purpose of increasing money circulation.
      bank rate means rbi lends money to other banks or financial institutions with lower rate of interest and the bank lending same funds for others with higher rate of interest for the purpose of make profit.

    • repo rate means the rbi lends from commercial bands for the purpose of increasing money circulation.
      bank rate means rbi lends money to other banks or financial institutions with lower rate of interest and the bank lending same funds for others with higher rate of interest for the purpose of make profit.

  4. Grt… I was stuck to understand IS,LM curve due to these terminologies.. I can try now.. Please send me more interesting material for Macro

  5. Sir,
    We all are thankful to you for this simple explanation. I couldn’t understand the difference between repo rate and bank rate. Is it only that bank rate is a long term instrument and repo rate is a short term instrument?

  6. Hello sir,
    I have read your description and u describe in easy terms also. But can u explain how it will affect banking and economic condition?

  7. i have searched so many sites to get this info….never before it was explained in such eassy manner.. Great job done by you.. Sir please share some more banking terms, stock exchange, Mutual Funds concept with us. Actually i am preparing for the Po examination. So please send general awareness material on my email id that is gkhanna22@gmail.com . Thank you so much once again.

  8. Hello sir,
    I am very much thankful to you for providing information in such an easily understandable form,
    i would also like to know that who can fix the Repo rate and reverse Rep

  9. Hello sir,
    I am very much thankful to you for providing such an easily understandable form,
    i would also like to know that who can fix the Repo rate and reverse Reporate.

  10. Hi Mr. Mukul
    My Interview is schedule on tomorrow for Bank Faculty General Awareness, could u pls suggestion & tips for clearing the same, I am very thankful to you, its urgent

  11. txs sir i searched many sites but in your site i found all answers ….i am preparing for banking exams sir could u please advise me some tips about banks….how banks operate.. the roll of banks in our society…etc….or could u tell me some books name that i will prefer for better result…..actually sir i m very poor in economics and general awareness so i decided to turn my weak point into my strong point…. so sir please help me out…. i will be grate full to you..thanks sir

  12. Sir,
    I m simply not getting words how to appreciate ur explanation n your effort to make clear a concept..while searching about bank rate in google ,suddenly i discovered d link and i was so much satisfied.Thanks a lot sir, I have worked as a teacher in senior seccondary schools for more than 3 years,so could really understand d way u were putting your best efforts to make a funda clear.
    Being from Chemistry background, i face some problems while studying economics, but i cordially request you to help me in learning eco explaining in simple way with d basic concepts clear.

    Thanks a lot sir.

    • Hello,
      I deeply appreciate your appreciation. I have dedicated myself to bringing economics closer to people who want to learn it. So you can say ‘Simplify’ is my motto and I would love to keep simplifying for you guys. Your appreciation motivates me no end and gives me an immense satisfaction.

      Regards,
      Mukul Sharma

      • The explanation is explained in a simple and lucid manner.
        Pls send me the guide.

        Thanking you
        AMARESH

  13. Hiii Mukul Sharma.Sir.. I must appreciate your efforts of making understand the different terms on banking in such a simple language. Anyone even a novice would understand that the meaning ..Simply superb.I was trying hard to understand these terms from inetrnet but finally today I could clearly understand all the terms. I need your help. Please help me to get access to more of your content on banking,finance,market related terms. Can you mail me the notes. Please Sir…

    THANK YOU :)

  14. hello sir,i am having interview,what r the question commonly asked in the interview,related to personal,and banking sir,can u plz sent?

  15. hii sir ur blog is really helpful for those aspiring fr bank jobs..im a btech graduate from mechanical background…m trying fr bank jobs i hav given many intvws but dint get selected both fr po’s n clerical…i think m not able to answr them proparly abt the basic. questn..lik “how ur mechanical knwldg will b useful for our banks..?” plz kindly rply me..i hav two more intvws in hand..

  16. Sir,i m BE Degree holder..have an interview for PO..can i get some idea about bank interview..which type of questions will be asked there.

  17. What is the diffrence b/w bank rate and repo rate… Moreover crr or slr should fluctuate daily as deposit with commercial bank changes daily…

    • Hi pragya, difference between bank rate and repo rate has been done to death in my previous posts and replies so i would advise you to look up. If you still have any specific questions then you can address me. Regarding crr, the amount under crr fluctuates according to deposits but not every day but calculated as a % of deposits over a period of time like 15 days or 30 days

  18. Hello Sir,

    I am preparing for campus placement for banks, can you please help me in telling the meaning of those banking terms which are important for interview.

    Regards
    Auyshee Mittal

  19. Basically what is the difference between bank rate and repo rate …. moreover shoudnt CRR or SLR should fluctuate daily as deposits with commercial bank changes daily…. what is the criteria for deciding the CRR & SLR then…….
    prompt response will be highly appreciated…

  20. sir,kindly tell me the difference between Repo Rate & Bank rate………..i’ll be greatful,if u give me a proper answer….

  21. hello sir could u tel me what is the current bank rate ,crr,slr,repo rate,reverse repo rate,base rate pls mail to my id if u ve additional informations

    • Hello Rajesh

      Sorry for replying late. Please tell me the exam for which you want study material. I will tell you accordingly

  22. Bank rate, Rapo rate, CRR & SLR amongst these which is the most effective measure to control the liquidity in the economy?

  23. thank u sir….i hae search soo many sites for this info….never before has this been expalined in an easy way

  24. i have searched so many sites to get this info….never before it was explained in such eassy manner…thanks a lot sir

    • Dear Mr Meena,
      Thanks so much, you appreciation is appreciated. In fact it keeps me going. But I am nowhere close to what you described me. I am and always will be a student of economics, never an expert.

  25. Hi. . . . Sir thanks for providing dis info.
    its. . . . Superb.
    I have a doubt that is 1) what is euro zone? How indian economy will be effected on it? 2) what are the reasons decreasing value of rupee. . .?

    • Hello,
      Euro zone is a collection of European countries who are a part of a European Union. Indian Economy is affected by it and vice versa as we do a lot of business i.e exports and imports in that region so economic climate there will affect us. Rupee is falling because a) Foreign investors are fleeing india b) our imports are rising over exports

  26. Prakash says :
    Hello sir , i would like to ask about the SLR, how it function, it regulatory fuction with Banks & RBI,effect on comman peoples.Upadates information from 1st MAY-12 so on….

    • Hello Prakash,
      SLR is another instrument of monetary policy that the bank uses to manage liquidity in the economy. Under this, the banks are required to maintain some amount its funds in the form of government securities and other liquid assets. Usually this ratio is much higher than CRR and is more infrequently used than CRR.

      RBI can affect the common man through its monetary policy instruments by increasing or decreasing policy rates which increases and decreases the borrowing cost of the common man and affects his consumption, borrowing, saving and spending patterns.

      I hope your doubt is solved. All the best!

  27. Its good
    sir,the explanation of all the terms is excellent but could u plz tell me the role of world bank in our economy, the only thing i know about world bank is that our govt. takes loan from the same.
    is RBI works under it or not?

    • Hello Sameer,
      The role of World Bank in our economy and for that matter any economy is to provide funds for social and infrastructural development projects. Yes World bank does grant loans to govt. departments for individual projects. And NO, RBI is not in any way under the World Bank.

  28. Dear Mr Mukul Sharma,

    Is the CRR applicable for scheduled and non scheduled banks alike? is the rate same for both the categories?

    • Dear Vidya,
      Yes CRR does not make any distinction between scheduled and non scheduled commercial banks in terms of applicability or rates.

      I hope your doubt is cleared. All the best!

  29. i hav confusion that what is the relation between lowering crr repo and bank rate..though lowering repo rrate is clear to me bt hw these three are related..pls explain numerically

    • hi, there is no “relation” between crr and bank rate, these are two different interest rates through which RBI exercises its monetary policy. CRR shows long term cost of lending of banks from RBI, and bank rate is the long term rate for the same.

  30. Hi sir,
    As you had explained that ” high repo signifies the rate at which liquidity is injected”. It means when repo rate is increased , the banks can have to pay higher interest to govt and they also charge higher interest from common public which gets discouraged to take more credit from banks , because of which there is less supply of money in system and there is less Liquidity.This Contradict your statement.Can you please elaborate it ?

    • hi,
      it is not a contradiction, your understanding of repo rate is spot on, except for the fact that banks take funds from the rbi and not the govt. high repo signifies the rate at which liquidity is injected because as it goes up, the cost of injecting more liquidity into the monetary system goes up.

  31. All the posts and your article to begin with was very helpful Sir ..looking forward to more on economy and budget..

    • @Mukta :
      See bank rate is for long term lending by RBI to commercial banks..i.e if banks need money and they borrow it form RBI for longer period (exceeding 90 days ) then it would be lent at bank rate..while if banks want to borrow money for a period lesser than 90 days it would get the money from RBI at Repo rate so it just the matter of time period that the two differ on..

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  33. Sir can you tell me whether my concept of relationship between REPO RATE & SLR is correct or not…

    ” when RBI wants to control flow of funds in the market it increases SLR due to which banks are required to maintain securities according to SLR, on the other hand it increase its REPO RATE so that it can suck cash to control liquidity in the market…..”

    • Yes, your understanding is correct overall, the RBI uses SLR very rarely, the more frequently used tools of monetary policy are CRR and Repo and Reverse Repo

      • sir u said that repo rate is used to inject liquidity but acc. to Anjali “REPO RATE suck cash”…m not understand clearly…would you elaborate this??

      • Sure Ankit.
        The fact is that REPO Rate can be used to both inject liquidity into and diffuse liquidity out of the system. The difference lies in the fact whether the repo rate is increased or decreased. If the repo rate is increased, the borrowing cost of the bank increases and their demand for funds decreases. This further reduces the liquidity injected into the system. On the other hand if repo rate is decreased, the borrowing cost of the bank is decreased, which raises their demand for funds and increases the liquidity in the system.

        I hope this solves your doubt. All the best!

  34. Sir can you tell me whether my concept of relationship between REPO RATE & SLR is correct or not….?

    ” When RBI wants to suck cash from the market it increase SLR which means bank are required to keep their securities with RBI according to SLR & on other hand it Increase its REPO RATE also so that it can control liquidity in the market….”

  35. dear sir, can you tell me that can i get these defnition in hindi and also banking notes which may be helpful for bank clerk exam. if yes sir please tell me that how can i get it . i

    • bank rate is the rate at which loans are lent for long time purposes but at repo rate rbi lends the money for short time purposes say ninty days

    • Hello

      From my point of view

      Bank Rate is the rate at which RBI discount the bill of commercial bank

      &

      Repo Rate is the rate at which commercial bank borrow money from RBI just because people are demanded 4 loan at high rate and when commercial bank do not have sufficient fund then commercial bank approaches RBI and to gave him money and charge interest after taking money from RBI commercial bank gave loan to people

      IN Bank rate when RBI have more fund then he approaches to commercial bank to discount their bill’s at lower rate of interest

      ( discount their bill means take loan )

      That’s the reason Bank rate is lower then Repo rate

      IN Bank rate RBI give offer to commercial bank and in Repo rate commercial bank approaches RBI

      • @ samarth but presently bank rate is 9.5 while repo is 8.5??
        well i m not too sure but bank rate is a rate at which commercial bills are re-discounted when bank is in need for money specially in dire circumstances while repo rate is rate at which govt securities are discounted when bank need money normally from RBI

  36. What is difference between bank rate and repo rate?both rates refers to the interest rates charged by RBI to the banks .Please give me a subtle distinction between repo rate and bank rate.

    • Hello

      From my point of view

      Bank Rate is the rate at which RBI discount the bill of commercial bank

      &

      Repo Rate is the rate at which commercial bank borrow money from RBI just because people are demanded 4 loan at high rate and when commercial bank do not have sufficient fund then commercial bank approaches RBI and to gave him money and charge interest after taking money from RBI commercial bank gave loan to people

      IN Bank rate when RBI have more fund then he approaches to commercial bank to discount their bill’s at lower rate of interest

      ( discount their bill means take loan )

      That’s the reason Bank rate is lower then Repo rate

      • Sir,
        as u told bank rate is lower then repo rate ..is this a genuine situation…
        because this time repo rate it lower than bank ..plz give some thought…

  37. sir, since repo means re purchase of short term securities… RBI uses repo and reverse repo techniques to increase or decrease the liquidity in the market. To increase liquidity, RBI buys government securities from banks under REPO; to decrease liquidity, RBI sells the government securities to banks… so how does repo rate makes it expensive for bank to borrow..?

    • hi bobby

      you have to look it in relatively…..its increase in repo rate which makes it expensive to borrow….so when liquidity is high rbi increases repo rate to discourage banks to borrow from RBI in that case banks would be having less to lend…

  38. what is the difference between ‘bank rate’ and ‘repo rate’ in both situation RBI lending money to the banks

    • Hi Sunil,

      ‘Bank Rate’ is a rate of lending in a long term sense while ‘Repo Rate is a rate of lending in a short term sense.

      • Sir i would like know what is Marginal Standing Facility rate. how does it function in our banking system. i tried to find answer in some websites but it didnt convince me.

  39. Do RBI lend money to an individual or an individual organisation (can be a manufacturing or service but non financial) except commercial banks

  40. Dear Mr.Mukul Sharma,

    Ur answers are real good and one cud understand the concept very easily. Thanks a lot for sharing ur knowledge with us.

    I wud b grateful if u pls elaborate abt euro crisis ?

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    • SLR is a liquidity ratio defining the amount of liquidity to be kept in a certain from (like govt securities) while PLR is a benchmark rate which is a base for the bank to charge interest rates on specific loans

      • Dear Mr Mukul Sharma,

        Does it indicate the minimum rate or the maximum rate of benchmark?
        And the interest rates mentioned…..is it for individuald borrowers?

  42. 1. Is CRR same for all banks or that depends on amount of total asset value of the bank?
    2. What is the difference between curbing inflation by increasing repo rate or by increasing CRR?

  43. Sir I want to know is there any correlation between CRR and SLR. Means purpose of both rate is to suck liquidity from economy.So when RBI decide that it need to put money with itself or with bank.

    • PLR is prime lending rate is a rate at which commercial banks gives loan to its most trustworthy customers ie. where the risk is minimum or risk weightage average is minimum. but banks can then also lend loan at lower rate than PLR to its customer to attract customer and thats why concept of base rate is introduced.

      • Marginal Standing Facility Rate : Under this scheme, Banks will be able to borrow upto 1% of their respective Net Demand and Time Liabilities”. The rate of interest on the amount accessed from this facility will be 100 basis points (i.e. 1%) above the repo rate. This scheme is likely to reduce volatility in the overnight rates and improve monetary transmission.

        In the policy statement RBI has also declared “The stance of monetary policy is, among other things, to manage liquidity to ensure that it remains broadly in balance, with neither a large surplus diluting monetary transmission nor a large deficit choking off fund flows.”

      • Dear Heena,
        I have tried to make these definitions as simple as possible. I will still try further if there is any scope.

  44. very thanks for the definitions.it is very helpful for students to learn basics of banking rate.could u please tell the basics of stock market and its opperation

    • Hi Manik,

      Working of stock market intrigues many management students. I would surely write a post on this very soon. Keep watching.

  45. Hello sir,
    Thank you for the simple explanation for understanding these terms easily. I want to know what is Marginal standard facility rate. Please explain its definition also tell me why and how it is used.

    • Hi Nikhil,
      Today the economies of the world are closely integrated than ever before. So if there is a crisis in any important part of the world like Europe, its ill-effects are bound to show in other economies which interact with the affected region. World markets are closely related as companies of one country is having customers in other countries, raw materials used on one country are consumed in another country, commodity prices are followed globally as they affect the whole world, investment conditions in one country affects those in other countries and other such factors.

  46. Hi This is Rakesh,
    Am an Assistant Professor in MVGR College, Vizianagaram.
    The site is so helpful to students, especially Finance & Economics Students.
    Required your help some aspects, waiting for your kind action & reply.
    rakeshkrishna.kv@gmail.com

  47. if the repo rate is higher than bank rate why should banks borrow giving higher repo rate. Generally, the rate at which it is possible to borrow through a repo should be lower than the same offered on unsecured (or clean) interbank loan for the reason that it is a collateralised transaction and the credit worthiness of the issuer of the security is often higher than the seller.

    • Hi,

      While bank rate is a long term rate, repo rate is a short term rate. So please note that for their short term requirements, banks will borrow at the repo rate. the interbank rate that you are talking about (technically called as call money rate) is the rate for shortfall of funds on daily basis for the bank. Therefore it cannot be compared with repo rate which is for funds required for short term reasons.

    • Scheduled Banks in India constitute those banks which have been included in the Second Schedule of Reserve Bank of India(RBI) Act, 1934. RBI in turn includes only those banks in this schedule which satisfy the criteria laid down vide section 42 (6) (a) of the Act.

      “Non-scheduled bank in India” means a banking company as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949), which is not a scheduled bank”.

  48. Hello Aditya Sharmaji,
    You have rightly explained that Repo rate is for short term lending and Bank
    rate is for long term lending by RBI. However, could you shed light on “what
    period is considered short term by RBI ( is it like 3 months, 6 months, etc ?)
    and what period is long term as per RBI”. Is there a fixed rule about that?
    Also, I want to ask as to how RBI decides what amount of loan is to be disbursed to which Bank under Repo or Bank rate ? as different Banks have
    different requirements as well as size of business. Like if a commercial bank
    decides to grant loan to a customer it is a commercial decision of that Bank as to whom to Grant the loan and at which rate ? How does RBI take this decision regarding lending money to Banks under Repo or Bank rate ?

  49. Hi Mukul,

    So, the total reserve that a commercial banks would need to maintain would be SLR + CRR = 30% as in the present case. Which means the the commercial banks can use on 70% of NDTL for loans and other financial transactions?

    Thank you,

  50. Hello Sir,
    I Am a science graduate and has passes exam gramin bank clerk’s examination. I want to know that what should i prepare for the interview ? As i am not familiar with the detailed of it and commerce and banking.

  51. sir can u suggest me for which book is better for ibps cmmon written exam for clerk?
    and as i m in b.tech 4th year is this god for me to join bank sector?

  52. sir plz recommend me book for the info on banking sector as i m going 2 give C.W.E exam so G.K with spc. reference 2 banking sector is important 4 me.

  53. dear sir,
    plz elaborate the function of PLR and tell how it effects on bank interest rates. and what is the basic behind fixing the rates as rates are of two types 1. bank receives from consumers and bank paye to consumers.

    much awaiting ….

    • The basic function of PLR is to set the benchmark to the interest rates actually charged to the customer. So a home loan may be charged at PLR + X%, whereas car loan may charged at PLR + Y%. The riskier the loan, higher is the addition to the PLR. The basis of fixing the rates that bank receives and gives to the customer is the profit margin i.e. the difference between the two. If the bank charges 15% for loan it gives and gives 10% for the deposits it takes, the profit is 6%. The actual rates charged will depends upon the profit the bank wants to earn which will again depend upon the existing industry scenario, rates that competitors are charging etc.

    • The basic function of PLR is to set the benchmark to the interest rates actually charged to the customer. So a home loan may be charged at PLR + X%, whereas car loan may charged at PLR + Y%. The riskier the loan, higher is the addition to the PLR. The basis of fixing the rates that bank receives and gives to the customer is the profit margin i.e. the difference between the two. If the bank charges 15% for loan it gives and gives 10% for the deposits it takes, the profit is 6%. The actual rates charged will depends upon the profit the bank wants to earn which will again depend upon the existing industry scenario, rates that competitors are charging etc.

  54. what is ther defination of repo rate, reverse reporate, marginal rate ,call rate, bank rate , crr, slr, non slr,

    • Hi Rahul, I have already done that. Bank rate is a longer term rate at which RBI lends liquidity to the banks, whereas repo rate is a rate for short term borrowings of the banks from the RBI. Bank rate is more of an indicative rate.

  55. 59. Thanks for another informative web site. Where else could I get that type of information written in such a perfect way? I have a project that I’m just now working on, and I have been on the look out for such information.

  56. 12. Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article. I will make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly comeback.

  57. Hi,
    From the explainations it is clear that whether RBI increases the bank rate,repo rate or the reverse repo rate all act as a tool to decrease liquidity and control inflation.So how does RBI chooses which one to use?

    • it depends upon the situations but mostly repo rate plays an important role because if RBI increases it then banks have to pay more to RBI..
      since both bank rates and reverse repo rate are related with repo rate then it is an important tool.

    • dear neeraj,
      CRR means CASH RESERVE RATIO as u see name clears itself that it is related with reserve.
      every bank has to keep a minimum amount of cash with R.B.I.Present CRR is 6%.This has do be done to avoid emergency conditions in the banks.
      while bank rate is a rate at which bank give credit to needy..current bank rate is 6%,also if r.b.i wants to increase the liquidity in the market it will decrease the bank rate and vice a versa means there is an indirectly proportional relationship…..

      also
      i have explained bank rate in reply section of this web page please go see that…thanx

  58. what is exact difference between bank rate and repo rate?
    give me a mathematical relationship between both of them

    • repo rate is the rate at which banks borrow money from the R.B.I and repo rate is greater than reserve repo rate(it the rate at which R.B.I takes money from banks thats why the word reverse is used means reverse of the repo rate) now repo rate is 7.50% and resrve repo rate is 6.50%
      and bank rate can b understand as
      bank rate =repo rate+banks interest which it charges from the customer
      e.g if x bank charges 8% from u that means bank has 6.50+1.50 % total…because if bank takes same amount of interest from u which it takes from r.b.i then it has no profit….may b this will help u

  59. sir i want to know about what is the effect of increase or decrease of repo rate, reverse repo rate, and crr on indian economy and inflation ?

    • dear pia,
      repo rate is very important term when it increases banks have to pay more to r.b.i when they take money from it…so as we know if repo rate increases then bank rate also increases..so we the customer has to pay more to bank and when decreases then vice a versa
      in case of reserve repo rate if it increases then its good for the banks because r.b.i give more to bank on that condition but it is less then repo rate as all these things are contorled by r.b.i
      one important thing is that repo rate and bank rate are said to be same in some conditions but the difference is that repo rate are short term loans and bank rate are for long term….
      if crr increases then banks have to make more cash reserve with r.b.i so if in that condition banks will lend less.

  60. i want to know that when do banks opt for repo and call? i know that repo is borrowing of money from a bank against government securities and call is unsecuritized borrowing i.e. no collateral is kept against borrowed money.
    is it like banks go for call borrowing to meet crr requirement and repo to meet slr requirement on a daily basis?

    thankyou.

  61. Hello sir,
    I wants to know that, all these rates change rapidly, or monthly.
    Can you advise the correct rates for all above terms.

    • Dear Himanshi,
      These rates are under review in every quaterly monetary policy of the rbi. These may or may not be changed depending upon the current monetary situation in the economy

    • Mahesh i have already explained the meaning of both, have a look, if u still dont understand then tell me the specific portion u have diffculty in

  62. Pl send me definitions of Repo rate,reverse repo rate,Bank rate,CRR,SLR andPLR And their current rates

  63. Repo rate & bank rate difference is not clear.Why RBI should lend money if banks does not want to borrow? Is RBI force fully lends money?
    Also pl elaboreate how inflation is controlled by chaning repo & rev.repo rate?Is not possible to contol Inflation by controlling repo rate only.And also Is not possible to contol inflation by controlling only SLR as it also contols the liquidity in the mkt.
    Prently we hear that there is a liquidity crunch in the mkt ,then why inflation is increasing?
    Pl elaborate
    Thanks
    Arvind Z modi

    • Banks need money for daily transactions so when they want more funds or loans to facilitate the end customer they go to RBI, They borrow loans for short period of time , the interest at which the RBI charges the bank is called Repo rate,
      Think this of a situation where you really are in a urgency of money and willing to pay any interest rate to the issuer for short term.

      Bank rate or the discount rate is also the same but the duration to pay back the money to RBI is a bit longer.

      Currently the Repo rate is 7.25% and Bank rate is 6%.

    • Nice questions Arvind.
      Sunny has already answered the first part of your question so il quickly move on to the second part.
      Usage of repo and reverse repo is done on the assumption that the inflation is due to the fact that people are demanding a lot of goods because they have too much money in their hands. If you want to control inflation, you have to reduce the amount of money in people’s hands so they would slow down their spending and demand for goods and help in controlling prices.
      Repo and Reverse repo basically reflect the cost of borrowing money from RBI for the banks. Now money is circulated in the systems mainly by the banks. If you increase their cost of borrowing money, they would pass on this cost to the borrowing consumer in the form of home loans, car loans etc. and the comsumer would lessen his demand for funds which will have an impact on the overall prices in the economy. I hope this makes it clear.

      Increasing SLR would mean that you are actually diverting bank funds away from the system, towards government securities. On the other hand, CRR makes the funds more costly. So the money remains in the system, although at a higher rate. This is why CRR is used more often than SLR in Monetary Policies.

      Inflation right now is increasing as it is a supply side inflation rather than demand-led inflation. Your question is very valid because, as against the popular opinion, it is not due to too much demand for commodities that the price is rising, but supply bottlenecks of agricultural commodities and the global rise in the price of industrial commodities, the reasons for which are very controversial and complex. This is the reason why despite regular hike in the borrowing rates, inflation is not coming under control.

    • No

      Repo rate is a rate on which bank borrow the money from RBI.

      Bank rate is a rate on which RBI lend to money to other bank and financial istitutions.

    • fiscal deficit is the difference between expected revenue and expenditure.In this situation the expenditure is greater then the revenue.The governments borrow the deficit amount from the public or world bank or any other longterm sources of funds.

    • PLR is stands for prime lending rate it is also called as prime rate, it is the rate at which a commercial banks lending the money to its customers. It’s vary bank to bank.

      Bank rate is the rate at which the central bank of any economy lending the money to the commercial bank for a long term perspective. ex:- RBI giving the money to the SBI for long term right now in India bank rate is 6%.

    • Definitions from EcoFin-SURGE Terminology section:
      Bank Rate is that rate at which the RBI lends overnight money to commercial banks.

      Repo/Reverse Repo Rate: Repo rate is the rate at which the RBI buys government securities from the market to infuse liquidity in the system. Reverse repo rate is the rate at which the RBI absorbs excess bank funds by selling government securities in the market. If liquidity is abundant in the system, then reverse repo becomes the key policy rate, but when liquidity is scarce and banks borrow from RBI, the repo rate is the policy rate. A cut in repo rate is a signal to banks to pare their lending and deposit rates but its effectiveness depends on liquidity in the system.

      The lender or buyer in a Repo is entitled to receive compensation for use of funds provided to the counterparty. Effectively the seller of the security borrows money for a period of time (Repo period) at a particular rate of interest mutually agreed with the buyer of the security who has lent the funds to the seller. The rate of interest agreed upon is called the Repo rate. The Repo rate is negotiated by the counterparties independently of the coupon rate or rates of the underlying securities and is influenced by overall money market conditions.

      The Repo/Reverse Repo transaction can only be done at Mumbai between parties approved by RBI and in securities as approved by RBI (Treasury Bills, Central/State Govt securities).

      Uses of Repo
      It helps banks to invest surplus cash.
      It helps investor achieve money market returns with sovereign risk.
      It helps borrower to raise funds at better rates.
      An SLR surplus and CRR deficit bank can use the Repo deals as a convenient way of adjusting SLR/CRR positions simultaneously.
      RBI uses Repo and Reverse repo as instruments for liquidity adjustment in the system.

  64. hello sir, can you pls brief me about the proper definition of repo rate and reverse repo rate and their impact in economy?..it will be very heplfull to me for my assignment if u answer my doudts with in 14th of nov.
    Thank you.

    • hi paromita, see your question is not so easy as well not so hard ,if you read carefully all the defination hich above mension you will come to know accordiglly, when a bank face any problem regarding lack of liquidity they borrows money from the RBI this rate is call as repo rate , in the same opposite mnner if RBI use to borrow monney from the banks this rate is call as reverse reo rate……………

      THE IMPACT OF ECONOMY,if rbi increase the reo rate as simple as banks will get money in higher price i this propostional they will distribue the loan in higher rate which impact end of the day a common humen being

  65. Hello sir can u pls sent me the proper definition of repo rate and reverse repo rate? it will be of great help for my assignment if u kindly answer me. Thank you.

  66. Thanks for making me understand about all these banking terms.This helped me to know why RBI increase or decrease these rates.

  67. Dear Sir,

    It is really nice to read your definition.
    IT helps me to improve my economic knowledge.

    Thanks for your good work

  68. hello,

    I read the definitions for CRR and SLR

    i am not very clear about the need for both CRR and SLR. why not a single limit.

    the only reasoning i can understand is that CRR is used as a ‘risk’ deposit by RBI and SLR is used to bring liquidity to the G-Sec market(if that’s the case then why should banks be forced to bring liquidity to Indian G-Sec market).

    I also have another query. 6% of deposits go for CRR maintainace. that leaves 94% of funds with the bank. of this 25% need to go for SLR maintainance. that means another 23.5% of the funds. that means only 70.5% of funds are left with banks to invest in the market. is this calculation correct?

    thanks for providing a wonderful explaination to all these terms.

    regards

    RATIN

  69. sir it was interesting to read this article. but i have a question, it would be great if you can explain it.

    ” why is there a difference between repo rate and reverse repo rate, and had there been any such instance when they were equal or inverted”

  70. very concrete and precise
    but covered all the significant aspects.
    sir, one question as you told about CRR and SLR
    but which rate a bank first has to deduct.

  71. Please describe what is bank rate, repo rate, CRR, SLR, Reverse repo rate and their present rate in layman language.

    • YOY stands for Year-On-Year. It means the comparison of a particular figure as on the same time during last year to the same time this year. For eg. the yield on YOY means ( while talking as on 31/3/20100 , the yield as on 31/3/2009 and 31/3/2010 Aare compared and the growth in % as on 31/3/2010 is spelt out with 31/3/2009 as base.

  72. very few people are knowing about all thease definitions, so it is very usefull for those who is preparing for interview or bank exams.

  73. This information is really helpful, specially for those who are preparing for banking exams.
    Thank you very much for provinding such wonderful information in such a easy words.

    • While repo rate is a short-term measure, i.e. applicable to short-term loans and used for controlling the amount of money in the market, bank rate is a long-term measure and is governed by the long-term monetary policies of the governing bank concerned.

  74. Dear Sir as per my knowledge CRR maitains liquidity but if we see Reverse Repo Rate it also maintains liquidity because RBI can demand for money to any bank. Then where the difference lies between these two.

    Thanks & Regards

    • the difference is that in CRR banks have to park their certain amount of money in RBI while in Reverse repo banks are purchasing back their securities from RBI at that rate so the difference is the securities banks have to buy or sell in repo rate or reverse rapo rate

      • Is it like

        SLR – Banks park their Funds with RBI and get G Secs and Mandatory Secs later these secs are purchased back by RBI (thats why it is called Repurchase option (REPO) ?

        I was always under impression tht it works like this. Is this true?

        Also i thought the funda is exactly reversed in Reverse Repo context.

    • i have little more to add to what sagar said, CRR is a mandate which has to be followed by the banks whereas Reverse Repo Rate is an option available with the banks, if the want the can park their funds with RBI, if the dont want the are not bound to do so it makes a clear difference between both of them.

      • hey by mistake t typed it the want the can park….its they want they can park their funds with RBI

  75. what is the difference between repo rate and bank rate . since there is no clear line of difference anywhere.what is crr. it has been defined differently at different places.

    • No confusion in respect of CRR. Presently it is 6%. That means banks have to keep 6% of their demand and term liabilities ( ie the deposits from the public) in the form of cash with RBI. The money kept in the bank’s own currency chest will be counted as having kept with RBI for CRR.
      That means to this extend banks can’t advance as funds would have been blocked with RBI.During inflation, RBI increases CRR so that money will be sucked from the system ( ie banks ) and net effect banks willnot have funds to that extend to lend and in turn the money available with the public will be less.

  76. DEAR SIR,
    I WANT TO GET GOOD KNOWLEDGE OF BANKING SECTOR HOW CAN I GOT IT IF YOU HAVE SOME DATA PLEASE SEND ME VIA MAIL
    I ALWAYS BE THANKFUL TO YOU

  77. Dear sir,

    Please clarify me on

    (i) If a banker borrows funds from RBI, what rate of Interest they have to pay RBI
    @ The bank rate (6.00%)
    OR
    @ The Reverse Repo Rate (4.75%)

    (ii) How the bank rate differs from Repo rate and reverse Repo rate

  78. Dear Sir,

    As I understand one of the main purpose of maintaining CRR and SLR is to separate some of the bank’s asset completely free of charges as the protection to deposit holders. Just wondering on following issues:

    1. Can a commercial bank pledge its SLR securities to other commercial bank to secure higher inter-bank limit or to take money ( say for 90 days or 180 days) from other commercial bank?

    In this case , are those pledged securities counted while determining adequacy as far as SLR requirements are concerned?

    2. Is it required, under any law, to keep the SLR securities free of any charges? Can you provide us the specific link to where I can look at such regulation?

    Hope I am not bothering you.

    Thank You.

  79. this explanation is very useful for common man because very simple while easy udrstanding words. some sources are not explein like this, we cotinue our paths on indian monetary tools.

  80. I am thankful to you for providing me with such a coherent explanation of the terms of finance which need to be understood by all citizens of the country who transact with the bank.

    • It is indeed encouraging to see such lucis explanation of finance/economy terms! Your readers may be interested in a concise summary of RBI’s latest policy and economy review posted on our site. They can also use our Monthly bulletin to get compilation of data series on the Indian economy for every month.

    • Paper money means the notes that we use nowadays. It differs from plastic money (debit cards, credit cards) because plastic money needs to be converted into paper money to be brought into use while paper money can be directly used in the market to buy commodities

  81. hello sir,thanks for making me clear the meaning of all these important terms,can u just make me clear the difference between bank rate, prime lending rate and repo rate.Please just give me an overview about sub-prime crisis,what exactly the sub prime crisis is?

    • Prime lending rate is fixed by Commercial Banks, while bank rate , repo rate and reverse repo rate are announced by RBI

  82. thank you for your information it was very informative i have one request to you regarding providing as many as information on fifnacial terms if possible as i am an finance student so i want to have in depth knowledege regarding finance

  83. Hello sir,

    I really very happy to find this site to ask my queries. Recently found this site while surfing.. Really happy tat many ppls here to answer my basic queries.

    Fine let me come to matter. I am very basics in share market. Dont even have 1% knowledge on buying the share, selling it, how to start, where to review, where to update and al such stuffs..

    I request anyone to explain in basic way so tat many of pppl like me can understand abt this. hope some will reply on it.

    Thanks in advance.

    Regards,
    Pradeep

    • Dear Pradeep,

      I am really very happy that you are interested in knowing how share market works. But let me tell you one thing that there are no single books or any website which gives 100% information about share market. So, you will have to work hard to get information from different places and then convert it to your knowledge to capitalize in trading.
      Now, let me come to the point. You can contact to any brokerage firms’ agent who are engaged in ‘Opening Demat a/c’. They will make you aware about the basics of the share market. But do not believe 100% on them because they will make you to get opened demat a/c and then do trading for their brokerage and commission.
      Please do not start trading until and unless you know your ‘Risk & Return’ profile and purpose of investment. First, do your need based assessment then start trading.

      Bye Bye…..

  84. I promise to pay the bearer the sum of certain value of rupee is written on our rupee note where as on other hand coins also serve the same purpose as notes but such type of statement is not written on coin, kindly explain.

  85. sir/madam

    plz tell me abt the Nationalized banks….whts the actual the actual meaning of it????

    and also the difference between banks and financial institutions????

    plz reply soon

    • hi,prerna..
      as u’ve asked abt banks,its nationalization and financial institutes, i think first of all u should understand the difference bet’n bank and financial institutes.
      There are many big firms engaged in production and distribution. These firms to start with needs big amt’s and the question arises from where to source the funds. These firms collects it from various sources like banks, mutual funds, loans, securities and share capital.
      The organizations engaged in suppling funds to these firms, collectively called as financial institutes. Banking sector is one of the long term loan providers for these firms. one of the main differenc bet’n the bank and other fin.insti. is band provides fixed rate of interest on the funds invested in it whereas others includes more risk and more rate of return.
      nationalization of bank is done by the central govt. in interest of nation. in natio’n banks come under the control of govt. After the independence so far 21 banks have been nationalize.

  86. dear sir,
    i want get recent data on SLR ,BRR, CRR, RR, Recent GDP CONTRIBUTION IN NNPAT FC NNP FCIN RECENT %INCRESE IN POPULATION ALL DATA OF INDIAN ECONOMY AS PER CPT(C.A) SYLABUS IF POSSIBLE SIR IT WILL BE UR SUPPORTIVE HELP FOR MY UPCOMING CPT EXAMITAION

  87. what is the difference between repo rate an bank rate , as in both cases RBI lends money and banks borrows,,the definition just distinguish each other ,as,in the repo as borrowing by bank and in case of bank rate as RBI lends so what is the difference

  88. Sir,
    I just came across this blog and I think it is really wonderful. While going through all the comments in this thread, I just came across some definition of PLR by Pankaj. Well, I don’t think it as correct.

    PLR – Prime Lending Rate and it is setup by the bank management for each bank seperately and individually. All the other credit rates of the bank are based upon PLR only.

  89. GOOD AFTERNOON, SIR

    1. THE INTEREST RATE INCREASE WHEN BONDS PRICE DECREASE – WHY.

    2. INFLATION OR DEFLATION – WHICH ONE IS FAVOUR FOR OUR ECONOMY

    • Dear Saran,

      Please see the mini example, which give you more clarity in bond.

      Bond Currently Market price: Rs. 100
      Interest: 8%
      Inflation 5%
      If Inflation is increased by 5%, means total 10% inflation,
      but interest on bond is same (8%), You get same amount, but value of money decrease, so bond’s market price will be fall.

  90. Dear Pankaj Sir
    Thnx for all the info.
    With reference to sensex I have a query what do you you mean by Weightage of company in the stock? second query How is BSE different from Nifty and which one is the most important if we are speaking in terms of impact on economy.

  91. hey its a very rasy xplaination and it will surely help the students preparing for banks entrance thanx it helpd me in po interview

  92. what are the present rates crr slr bank rate plr etc
    what is plr…i got confused with the defination given above i think it is the rate at which banks give big loans to its prime and creditworthy customers
    please explain about the the type of securities involved in slr

  93. wonderful information site. sir i want to know the difference between public sector banks and private sector banks and on what basis they are seperated like that?

    • dear kavitha,
      I’m glad to explain u diff. bet’n public sector and private sector bank. The most significant diff. lies in stake holding. in public sector bank govt. holds the maximum share of ownership. hence it is under control of govt. it works as per the govt. policies. whereas private banks there is no such rule of ownership and it works completely under the board of representatives of share holders i.e. board of directors.

  94. Again another small question.
    By the term ‘rate’ here I think we mean ‘interest rate’. Am I right?

    Please oblige by answering.

  95. Thank you for the information. But I have a small doubt regarding the definition of repo rate. Repo rate has been defined as –
    “Repo rate is the rate at which banks borrow funds from the RBI”
    Can we say that
    “Repo rate is the rate at which banks borrow money from the RBI”

    Is there any difference between the words fund and money?
    Are the words fund and money used synonymosly here?

    Kindly oblige by clearing my doubt.

  96. Hi Dear,
    In polity:
    Federal:
    Means clear cut division of the power betweeen the centre and the states,only in extraordinary situation centre can interferes in state matters linke in the (USA).
    there is no any concept of concurrent list in the USA.

    Central:
    Like services of the CBI can be availed by the states also in the india as per the gravity of the crime/situation,Centre suo-moto can instigate CBI enquiry without any consent of state ….
    Apart from this i don’t see the any difference from polity point of view

  97. dear sir,

    In polity what is the difference between federal & central?Eg:-CBI FBI.Is the use of federal & central in these two cases has got any purpose as far as polity is concerned & can it make any difference?
    Kindly clear

  98. Your blog about Indian Economy is good. Thanks for letting us know about your blog and also give us the opportunity to share our website with you and your visitors.

    http://www.ecofin-surge.co.in is an endeavour to provide data support to anyone who is interested in tracking the trends in the Indian and Global Economy as well as Financial markets. The website offers a comprehensive collection of macro-economic and financial markets’ data, both Indian and International compiled from official websites of relevant countries. The website provides part of its collection of the basic data, free of cost, while, some other series like historical time-series and crucial rates and ratios or bond yields are estimated and provided at request.

  99. Your blog about Indian Economy is good. Thanks for letting us know about your blog and also give us the opportunity to share our website with you and your visitors.

    We would appreciate if you keep in touch with us in future.

    Thanks.
    The Surgers
    (For ecofin-surge)

  100. In india earlier there was no any agency to tackle,only terrorism related crimes but now it is there. Other intelligence agencies in india are theer to cover up all the other areas which are coverd by FBI( in brief)

  101. Difference between NIA and FBI
    NIA:
    1-Main concern or you can say that only concern of it is to deal with terrorism or terror realted activities such as (Funding, training camps,recruiting people for terror related activities and so on ….) in the states and in centre.
    2-Have all the power of special court to procecute the accused of CrPc(as mention in the act)
    3-For better cordination between among the states and between the states and union to deal with terror realted activities.
    Apart from this some other more powers are given….for detail please read the Act itself.

    FBI:
    1-Against terrro attack
    2-Against any foreign intelligence
    3-Against cyber-based/High-technology based attack
    4-Combat public corruption
    5-Protecting civil rights
    6-Transitional/national crime
    7-major white-collor crime
    8-Significant violent crime

  102. dear sir,
    when there are so many intelligence agencies in our country then what is the need for NIA?How it resembles FBI of USA?

  103. HI All, yes you can ask question from any field like [Geography ,polity,statistics,pub.ad.,psychology,history,current affairs,menatl ability,Biology(prelims),International relations etc.]
    I do not have much knowladege about chemistry so pleased pardon me for that ……….

  104. thank u for the valuable information about varrious banking terms.Can I have informations in other fields like geography, chemistry and more importantly current affairs

  105. thanks a lot for all d terminologies..dey were very helpful.keep giving more definitions so that we can be aware of such terms.

  106. PLR and And loan system:

    Hi You can read about the PLR (Is the percentage of amount left after deduction of CRR and SLR from the total liability of any bank) after this remaining amount(Say 100) is divided on the two parts,one part that right now 40% of the remaining amount is directed to sectors identified by the Government such as :marginal farmers,BPL,SSI,Sick industries etc.

  107. Hi, Currency printting policy

    The Reserve Bank decides upon the volume and value of bank notes to be printed. The quantum of bank notes that needs to be printed broadly depends on the annual increase in bank notes required for circulation purposes, replacement of soiled notes and reserve requirements.

  108. Hi purushottam:
    CRR i have alredy explained u can read it and understand it what dose it mean.
    Answer:Increase in CRR leads to Sucking of money from market, so in that case banks increases their interest rate on lending. In other terms money becomes costlier to masses( This tool is used to curtail the inflation which occurs due to excessive demand).opposite happens when CRR is reduced by the government.

  109. hw the co. comes with theit IPO n hw the price has been fixed of an IPO an give me the detailed information about IPO’s.

    with regards
    kumar saurav

  110. respected sir,
    mindblowing site,the nformation I information that I have gathered today regarding rr,rrr,crr,plr,cr was rare and could have spent months to gather.
    Thanks alot.

  111. dear Sir,

    I want to study debt market in depth,i am not very knowledgeble person as far as debt mkt is concern,can you pls guide me some good books for same which can explain every thing in dtail.

  112. hi
    sir i am a student of MBA final semester.i want to know the complete concept about SLR and CRR. kindly if there is any article related to this plz send it to my e mail id. i have to present it in this weak.

    thanx

  113. i want to know to till how many years the effect of financial crash wil be on the economy?is ther any any effect on india of the recession in japan ?plz let me know the answers.

  114. Dear Sir,
    I have a question that what is meaning of PLR,
    How it is related to Loan system.

    Kindly explain regarding SLR and How its work in
    system.

  115. Dear Sir/Madam,

    I just want to what is present percentage of reverse repo rate? What difference between PSU (piblic Sector Units) Pct. Sector bank and Co-Op banks? Whatis E-Sops (employees stock option)? Please send me the reply if anybody knows it.

    regards,
    Manjunath Hegde
    9860730197

  116. Thanx fot the explanation of REPO,Reverse REPO, CRR, SLR
    It is really helpful to understand the functioning of the same…

    Thanks a lot !

  117. Hi Pankaj,

    Thanks a lot for sharing such valuab;le information in simple and easy to understand language.. I want to know what are the fators on which RBI decides how much currency to Print. Do we follow Gold standard or sth. else ?

    Regards,
    Ritesh Kumar

  118. Hi every body,

    if any body of u having any doubt related with any topic of G.S.(Any section), Public Administration, Psychology. please feel free to write me.i will be happy to assist you ….incase any body wanted to contact me please write me “panky2020@rediffmail.com”

  119. Hi Romi-
    BR- It is the rate at which the RBI lends the loan to other banks for long term against government securities.

    RR-Lending rate offered by the RBI to other banks for short term lending against the private securities.

  120. Hii Priyanka..
    CRR-Is the percentage of amount deducted from the total libality of the bank and which should be kept in the liquid form with the bank(say total liability of bank is 100 and amount for CRR is fixed 5%,than Rs. 5 will be kept in the liquid form ),remainig amount will be Rs.95-/

    SLR- it is the percentage(fixed by the RBI) of money(left after deduction of CRR) which is invested in the government securities.(say the Percentage fixed for the SLR is 25% than 25%of95 will be invested as the SLR

    PLR.Is the percentage of amount left after deduction of CRR and SLR from the total liability of any bank, and lend to the Sectors at lower rate of interest as compare to another lending.

    RR-Lending rate offered by the RBI to other banks for short term lendin against the private securities.

    RRR- It is the opposite of RR(means rate at which RBI offers the securities to the banks)

  121. Why after independence GOI led by jawahar lal nehru focused on secondary sector of the economy i.e. industries,knowing the fact we were lagging in technology and capital.why had not focused on agriculture ….Like CHINA having almost same situation as india did at that time(focused on the Agriculture).If we would have focused on the agriculture,we should have ahed of china…please tell me was nehru’s vision not clear at that time

  122. what is the difference between repo rate & bank rate because looking at the definition mentioned above, it is contradicting.

    • Hi Romi,

      Repo Rate: Rate at which commercial banks borrow funds from RBI for a shorter period of time mainly to maintain its CRR level.
      Bank rate: rate at which commercial banks borrows funds from RBI for a longer periosd of time.

  123. 1.pls explain the difference between bank rate and repo rate?
    2. What is the subprime crisis? And how has it affected the banking system in India.

  124. hi,
    can you pls tell me what is the difference between a Repo and CBLO? Also how does it impact the financial stock markets? thanks.

  125. Dear sir,
    its very good site, and the way of expression of the answers is quit easy……
    anybody can understand these terminology easily.
    thnks

  126. Everybody asked about the difference between repo rate and Bank rate without even noticing that Mr.AADESH SRIVASTAVA has already replied to the thread clearly indicating the difference between the two. The difference is that
    Bank rate is the long-term lending rate while
    Repo rate is the short-term lending rate

    • Sambhav,

      Reverse Repo: rate at which Commercial Banks park excess funds with RBI. Thus, it is the rate at which commercial lends to RBI.

      Bank Rate Rate at which Commercial banks borrows funds from RBI which is for a longer period of time as compared to Repo rate.

      If you have understood, now answer me:
      Can an economy set the reverse ropo rate higher than the bank rate? If yes, then what does it indicates?

  127. These are the infos which one must aware of. Especially an MBA student must know all these terms of finance.. Thnx 4 providing such knowledge..

  128. thanks sir these definitions r really very simple n excellent………but can u plz clear me that if rbi has tool like CRR than wats d need 4 reverserepo rate

  129. Regarding Repo and Bank Rate:
    Repo is short term whereas Bank rate is long term. Thus Repo rates are also called short term lending rate and Bank rates are called long term lending rates. Now if the Repo rate > Bank rate, it signifies that short term borrowing of funds is more expensive for commercial banks. Incedentally, this short term borrowing through Repo is required by the banks to maintain its CRR. Thus if Repo rate is increased, bank will reduce its lending to public because to maintain the CRR bank will have to now borrow from RBI at a higher Repo rate. Thus increase of Repo is done to suck liquidity from the economy.

  130. What is the difference between Reverse Repo Rate and CRR When in both cases it is used to control the excess liquidity in the economy

  131. hi sir,
    these definition’s are very good and easy to understand for non commerce student’s.thank you very much.

    Sushil k……….

  132. Hi, have had a basic querry it’d be great if you could help me out with it. Or a few links to where i could go into depths of this matter.. If we are considered a relatively poorer country why cant we just make or print more money and make it available to become a richer country.. what are the factors that affect a richness or poorness of a country..

  133. I have a question that in the case of Bank rate and repo rate both, bank is borrowing money from RBI to meet their lending requirements, then what is the difference between the two.

    • In Case of Repo rate the banks have to sell the securities to the bank to borrow monwy from RBI.
      In case of Bank rate there is no need to sell securities.

  134. Could you please the difference between bank rate and repo rate? Both of them involve the borrowing of money by commerical banks from the RBI.

    • Bank Rate is that rate at which the RBI lends overnight money to commercial banks.

      Repo rate is the rate at which the RBI buys government securities from the market to infuse liquidity in the system.

      Reverse repo rate is the rate at which the RBI absorbs excess bank funds by selling government securities in the market.

      If liquidity is abundant in the system, then reverse repo becomes the key policy rate, but when liquidity is scarce and banks borrow from RBI, the repo rate is the policy rate. A cut in repo rate is a signal to banks to pare their lending and deposit rates but its effectiveness depends on liquidity in the system.

  135. dear sir,
    I have the following queries:

    1.pls explain the difference between bank rate and repo rate?
    2. What is the subprime crisis? And how has it affected the banking system in India.
    3. How have the movement of swiss franc in relation to US dollars affected the large corporates in india with respect to option contracts?
    Shall be much obliged if you can address to the above queries.

  136. I refer to your article on REPO,REVERSE REPO and BANK RATE. RBI lend to on bank rate, which is 6% and banks borrow from RBI on REPO RATE, which is 7.75%. The differece between two is only of log term and short term lending respectively by RBI TO BANKS. When short term lending is costlier, definietly banks must be planning to borrow cheap funding of more than a year on bank rate. Please discuss the roll of both instruments in controlling economy and liquidity in market.

  137. i would like to analyse the performance of the Indian bank to forecast which banks will dominate in the future ie best banks. please help how to do?

  138. Stock market is a place where the shares of companies are bought and sold(traded). Now sensex in nothing but an index that represents the price of shares of 30 top companies. the points that you see are the weighted average of share prices of these companies. the idea is that you get a representative figure of the share prices for the whole market so that one would know in which direction is the market moving. so if the prices of 30 companies falls on an average, the sensex points also fall. it will be a complicated exercise for you to understand in what proportion are individial share given the weightage in the sensex. all you need to know is that sensex is a representative figure made to guage the movement of the market.

  139. hello sir can u pls brief me about process and mechanism of stock market.what is sensex .and what r these points which keeps increasein or decreaseing?how the value of shares effect the sensex and how r these considered wen the ultimate result is given in points?.. it wil be of a great help if u kindly answer my doubts.and wen is the nex weekly oracle magazine is available.i.e from 5th feb?

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